Friday, November 24, 2017

More News

http://www.alaskacommons.com/2016/02/15/activist-bree-newsome-challenges-alaskans-agents-change/

https://jezebel.com/activist-johnetta-elzie-talks-ferguson-black-lives-ma-1718374170

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_China_before_1912

https://isreview.org/issue/107/leon-trotskys-history-russian-revolution-part-1


Ancient Economic History


The Classical Age of world history lasted from 500 B.C. to 500 A.D. It was after the Iron Age. The Classical Age related to the further development of world empires, the expansion of trade, and the further complex growth of human interactions. Back then, India and China had the biggest economies in the world at that time. Each had more than half of the size of the world’s economy. They had high GDP, but they didn’t have significantly higher GDP per capita. Each had major population centers too. Commercial changes grew as result of the actions of Alexander the Great too. He facilitated multi-national trade. Julius Caesar of ancient Rome also conquered France and Britain. By the time of the Roman Empire, Egypt was the wealthiest of all places within the Roman Empire. The merchants of Rome acquired produce from Persia via Egypt by the port of Berenince and subsequently the Nile. Ancient Nubia during the classical period had its ideas and technologies travel in the rest of Africa, Europe, Asia, etc. Nubia traded with Chad, Libya, Egypt, China, India, and the Arabian Peninsula too. The Bantu migration during this period continued. In ancient China, there was the Warring States era from the 5th century to 3rd century B.C. As the feudal system collapsed, most legislative power transferred from the nobility to local kings. Increased trade during the Warring States period produced a stronger merchant class. The new kings in ancient China established an elaborate bureaucracy, using it to wage wars, build large temples, and enact public-works projects. This meritocratic system rewarded talent over birthright. Greater use of iron tools revolutionized agriculture and led to a large population increase during this period. In 221 B.C., the king of the Qin declared himself the First Emperor, uniting China into a single empire. The Qin Dyansty saw its various state walls into the Great Wall, and its various peoples and traditions into a single system of government. The Qin emperor unified standards of writing, weight measurement, and wheel length. It ended old currencies that varied among states. Trade was easier to execute. It had heavy taxation of salt and iron manufactures. Many Chinese people were forcibly migrated to new territories in the south and west. Although their initial implementation led to its overthrow in 206 B.C., the Qin's institutions survived. During the Han Dynasty (from 3rd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.), China became a strong, unified, and centralized empire of self-sufficient farmers and artisans, with limited local autonomy. The Han dynasty in China was a Golden Age. There was rapid growth. Its population reached 58 million people. There was the wheelbarrow, paper, and a seismograph which was invented during this period.

According to Herodotus, and most modern scholars, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coin. It is thought that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC. A stater coin was made in the stater (trite) denomination. To complement the stater, fractions were made: the trite (third), the hekte (sixth), and so forth in lower denominations. The first economist (at least from within opinion generated by the evidence of extant writings) is considered to be Hesiod, by the fact of his having written on the fundamental subject of the scarcity of resources, in Works and Days. Indian thinker Chanakya wrote Arthshastra, science of economics in contemporary India in 4th century BC. Greek and Roman thinkers made various economic observations, especially Aristotle and Xenophon. Many other Greek writings show understanding of sophisticated economic concepts. For instance, a form of Gresham’s Law is presented in Aristophanes’ Frogs. Bryson of Heraclea was a neo-platonic who is cited as having heavily influenced early Muslim economic scholarship.


During the Middle Age, the world economy slowly expanded with the increase of population and trade. There was the Silk Road that was used for trading from Europe, Central Asia, and to China. The Axumite Kingdom of Ethiopia and Eritrea had a powerful navy. They established trade with the Byzantine Empire and India. Islamic areas by the Middle East expanded trade, literacy, and centralized states. By 1324, Mansa Musa, the king of Mali, made a historically famous Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. There was an enormous group organized to undertake the Hajj with the king. It included "60,000 men, including 1200 servants" and records show that Mansa Musa gave out so much gold in Egypt, that its economy became depressed. Between 1000 and 1500, the forests of West Africa also became part of trade networks, particularly under the reigns of the Yoruba kings. Ifé was a vital trade town, along the route from the tropical forests to Djenné, a major trade center in Sudan, near other large trade cities such as Timbuktu and Gao. Ifé's location also placed it near Benin and the Atlantic Ocean. Yoruba civilization was supported by cities surrounded by farmed land, but extensive trade development made it wealthy. The stone city of Great Zimbabwe, founded around 1100, was the center of the Shona kingdom until around 1400. In the Tang dynasty (in ancient China), there was another Golden Age in China. By 630, the Tang had conquered the powerful Gokturk Khagnate, preventing threats to China's borders for more than a century. A series of strong and efficient rulers, beginning with the founder and including a woman, expanded the Tang Empire to the point that it rivalled the later Yuan, Ming and Qing. The Tang was a period of rapid economic growth and prosperity, seeing the beginnings of woodblock printing. Tang rulers issued large amounts of currency to facilitate trade and distributed land under the equal-field system. The population recovered to and then reached an estimated 80 million human beings. The Chinese Song period (10th–13th century) brought additional economic reforms. Paper money, the compass, and other technological advances facilitated communication on a large scale and the widespread circulation of books during the Song period. The state's control of the economy diminished, allowing private merchants to prosper and a large increase in investment and profit. Despite disruptions during the Mongol conquest of 1279, the 2nd plague epidemic in the 14th century, and the large-scale rebellions that followed it, China's population was buoyed by the Columbian Exchange and increased greatly under the Ming (14th–17th centuries). The Ming dynasty of China saw cash crops grown and it was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang. Many state industries were privatized. The Ming Dynasty was a very important era of Chinese history.

During the early part of the Middle East, Europe was in chaos because of wars, the end of the Western Roman Empire, and other problems. By the later medieval period, rich trading cities in Italy developed. They created the first modern accounting and finance systems in Europe. The first banknotes were used in the Tang dynasty China in the ninth century A.D. It expanded use during the Song dynasty. By the first millennium A.D., there were improvements in technique and technology in the world. Monasteries developed. There were centers of the collection of knowledge involving agriculture and forestry. Irrigation improved. There were trade among Europeans, Africans, and Asians. Those in the Americas traded with each other too. Economies in Oceania, Australia, and the rest of the world existed. Land use increased and population increased. Large landowners had significant control over both their land and its laborers, who were peasants or serfs. More iron smelting caused more tools to be developed for developing society. Watermills and windmills spread in the world. There was the Great Famine from 1315 to 1317. It weakened populations in Europe and parts of Asia too. From the 8th century to the 12th century, there were the Vikings using long distance navigation to travel into Europe, America, parts of Africa, and the Middle East. There was the longship and the astrolabe used by the Vikings and others for navigation. Guilds and merchant capitalism was formed. This was about merchant houses, backed by financiers acting as intermediaries between simple commodity producers. This system continued until it was supplanted by industrial capitalism in the 18th Century. City states like in Italy developed. Genoa and Venice created large wealth. In the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, the Hanseatic League trade monopoly grew trade along the 2 seas. Lubeck was the city leader of the Hanseatic League. In the late 1400’s, the economies of Europe (especially in France) did grow and recuperated from the economic catastrophes and bad harvest plus famines including wars.


By 1500, the world has changed. This era was the start of the massive international slave trade. It was during the late 1400’s when Portugal began the modern International slave trade involving the oppression of black African people. There were early European colonists in North Africa like the ancient Greeks. The modern economy as we know it today revolved around the brutal oppression of black people and the genocide of the Americas literally. Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator made it very clear that he wanted to travel into Africa as a means to get resources and try to convert as many African people to his version of Christianity (in the midst of the Ottoman Empire, which was mostly Muslim). Not all Christians are responsible for the Maafa. It is that evil people purposely perverted the essence of real Christianity as an excuse for them to commit evil. It’s like not all Muslims are responsible for the Arabic slave trade (which was evil and unjust), but some people claiming to be Muslims are responsible for it. The Portuguese refused to sell African guns, but they sold Africans Indian cloth and European manufactured goods. Europe itself used imperialism and massive economic exploitation as a means for that continent to grow their various brutal empires in the world.


By Timothy

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Thanksgiving 2017 Part 5






Image result for anti apartheid movement in nycRelated image


Conclusion (Thanksgiving)

One of the biggest myths in the world is that praying and marching haven't caused any progress in the world. History is the best way to refute such a pernicious myth. First, there is nothing wrong with praying and marching. Many folks, who mock those marching, disrespect our ancestors who did these things for long years. Second, the Montgomery Bus Boycott involved boycotts, marching, praying, and social activism. The actions of many in that movement caused their cause to be successful. Many people marched, prayed, and protested during the 1960's to cause the Civil Rights Act to be passed in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act to be passed in 1965. Tons of marching and boycott worldwide caused apartheid to end in South Africa. During the anti-apartheid movement, there was a very successful economic divestment campaign which withheld funds from supporters of South African apartheid. Even back during the 1930's, massive labor rights protests contributed to Social Security and other economic rights to exist in our land. That is why workers must be respected since they are the ones who create our TVs, our homes, our cars, and so many other entities worldwide. In our generation, there is a higher sense of awareness about police brutality and racial injustice by marching and protests. It is true that we should use our economic power in boycotts and economic development. Yet, finances alone isn't going to save us. What will save us is a cogent, political and economic plan for our community. It involved promoting living wages (which the haters don't discuss readily), a healthy environment, labor rights, a fight against poverty, using policies that will improve our families including our communities, and grassroots organizing in order for us to see the Promised Land for real.


Recently, about 2,800 documents related to the JFK assassination has been released to the public. Some of the documents (in about 300) was not released yet since Trump wants a 6 month review. Also, Trump received pressure from the CIA and the FBI that revealing such material would be detrimental to "national security." I believe in transparency. We have found information about this tragic situation in 1963. Many things confirm what we know for years. One of those things is that the new documents prove one again that the CIA worked with the Mafia in plans to try to assassinate Fidel Castro (who passed away recently and he was a Communist). The report said Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the President's brother, told the FBI he learned the CIA hired an intermediary "to approach Sam Giancana with a proposition of paying $150,000 to hire some gunman to go into Cuba and kill Castro." US Attorney General Robert Kennedy was reluctant to use the Mafia in the assassination attempts against Castro due to his push against organized crime. The plot to kill Castro by the CIA is known as Operation Mongoose. There are CIA photos from the document too. The documents show that Lee Harvey Oswald got ammunition from a right wing militia group. We find out that the FBI found out someone trying to kill Oswald. One document has a person asking then CIA Director Richard Helms (during the 1970's) if there was any way Oswald was in some way a CIA agent or an agent. Then, the document mysteriously cuts off (without Helms giving his answer).

Image result for jfk documents

Many of the documents are completely illegible. Before the assassination, Oswald was in Mexico City and had communication with intelligence agents from the Soviet Union and Cuba. Documents revealed that the Soviets were shocked at the death of Kennedy since Kennedy was seen by the Soviet Union as much more moderate than other Cold Warrior politicians. JFK was the one who signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963. One question is why the CIA doesn't want more documents released when it has been over 50 years after 1963?  CIA Director Richard Helms, who served under both the Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon administrations, claimed in April 1975 that Johnson used to claim that Kennedy’s killing was an act of foreign retribution, the documents show. "President Johnson used to go around saying that the reason President Kennedy was assassinated was that he had assassinated President Diem,” Helms said in a deposition. One of the biggest revelations was that the CIA had plans to try to assassinate Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba and Indonesian president Sukarno. We know that many Western imperialists hated Lumumba since he wanted Congo to be independent from Western imperial influence. This release is like a movie script, but this is real history and this is real life. A recently poll says that 61% of Americans view the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as a product of a conspiracy. One thing that people, who either believe in a conspiracy or not, do find is that the FBI and the CIA covered up many things as an means for them to cover up their bureaucratic mistakes. More questions remain and that is why we desire the whole truth.

We witness the crisis of politics in America. The GOP existed since the 19th century. Today, the leader of the Republican Party is Donald Trump as he is President currently and he's a Republican. Tons of hypocrites voted for Trump knowing full well that he has shown anti-spiritual qualities of cursing constantly, refusing to ask God for forgiveness of anything, of degrading women, of degrading immigrants, and for allying with neo-Confederates (who want statues of known white supremacist Confederate traitors to be on public lands). Trump's heinous morality has either been ignored or supported by his supporters. Therefore, anyone who supports Trump today allies with his xenophobic nationalism and his racism. Senators like Corker, McCain, and Flake have criticized Trump because of his non-civil attitude and his disgraceful actions.

Also, it is important to note that this situation didn't start in 2016. Decades ago, the GOP has used the Southern Strategy, racist campaigning, voter suppression laws, and other deplorable tactics for the sake of them gaining power and getting votes. Trump is the modern manifestation of the sick evils of white supremacist views and a reactionary agenda (which desires draconian austerity, tax cuts for the super wealthy, militarism, and hatred of our democratic freedoms. Trump wants to ban kneels in football games, restrict licenses against media organizations that disagrees with him, and he wants to loosen libel laws. These actions are blatantly against the freedom of speech). Trump has threatened war with North Korea too when North Korea has nuclear weapons. We know about EMP devices too that can ruin the electric grid. That type of a war with North Korea could kill millions of people, so only peaceful diplomacy is the solution to that crisis. This fascist nationalist movement isn't just found in America. In Germany, there is Alternative for Germany, in the UK, there is the Independence Party, and in other countries, fascists (who hate refugees, immigrants, and the idea of multiculturalism) are abundant. This is why heroic organizations to combat fascism are needed and we are aware that these bigots (like Bannon, Trump, etc.) won't quit until we are suppressed completely of our rights. Now, we must continue to fight for our rights and speak out. We love our diversity in America and we appreciate real democratic freedom. Also, we are in the right and we will win in the end.


By Timothy



Thanksgiving 2017 Part 4



 Image result for ferguson rebellionImage result for ferguson rebellion


African American History Part 7: The Third Era (Continued)

Ferguson (a new era of Black America)

It has been more than three years since the passing of the Brother Michael Brown in 2014. He passed away in Ferguson, Missouri, which is a suburb of the city of St. Louis. Afterwards, the rebellion existed in Ferguson, Missouri. Recently, the NAACP sent an advisory warning to Missouri because of Missouri's policies dealing with race. Missouri is a Midwestern state once controlled by the French (centuries ago) and it has experienced the Civil War, segregation, covenant policies (which harmed the housing rights of black people), urban renewal (or corporate people using building projects as an excuse to displace poor and black residents), and other evils. St. Louis has a long history of discrimination so much that some view it as a Southern city. Likewise, dedicated activists have fought for freedom in Ferguson, in St. Louis and throughout Missouri too. By the 1940's and the 1950’s, Ferguson was a mostly white “sundown town” (according to the writer James Loewen). White flight came and Ferguson became mostly African American by the 1980's. Racial profiling existed in Ferguson too. The Ferguson rebellion signified the largest rebellion in American history since the LA rebellion back in 1992.

During the 2014 rebellion, innocent journalists and innocent protesters were arrested, civil liberties were violated, and courageous people stood up against the evils in the system. The events of Ferguson document how police brutality and economic inequality including racism are serious realities that we must confront in order to make society liberated for all. The events of Ferguson inspired a whole new generation of young people to be active in social and political affairs. The Black Lives Matter movement and other movements for social change grew. Unfortunately, police killings of unarmed black people continued from Eric Garner to other people. The DOJ documented the corrupt actions of the Ferguson police department. It is also important to address class oppression since society is heavily stratified based upon class. People not only need jobs. People deserve respect and equitable treatment under the law. Society must change (change deals with protests and developing our infrastructure including progressive programs in addressing our issues and helping our communities. At the end of the day, people not only need cameras, but living wages, universal health care, the elimination of discriminatory policies, strong educational services, and investments in community growth). What transpired in Ferguson back in 2014 outlined a new era of the black freedom movement and we are continuing to stand up for our rights as well.

Related imageImage result for ferguson national guard al jazeera


In order to get the history of Ferguson right, we have to show the events chronologically. It all started with Michael Brown. On August 9, 2014, Michael Brown and a friend walked down the street. Michael Brown encountered Officer Darren Wilson. A confrontation occurred. Later, Darren Wilson shoots and kills Michael Brown at 12:01 pm. on August 9, 2014. Michael Brown was unarmed and he was hit with 6 shots. It would be hours until a medical examiner comes to the scene. For hours, Michael Brown’s body was left in the street lifeless. Also, many protesters raised their hands up and said, “Don’t shoot us” to officers in the night of August 9. On August 10, 2014, the St. Louis County Police Joe Belmar said that Michael Brown assaulted the officer and tried to reach for the officer’s gun. This has been disputed by the supporters of Michael Brown. The Brown family got the retain attorney Benjamin Crump, who once represented the family of Trayvon Martin. By night time, a candlelight vigil to respect Brown existed. Soon, the rebellion happened with a dozen businesses being vandalized and harmed. More than 30 people were arrested and 2 cops suffered injuries according to the police. By August 11, 2014, school was canceled in Jennings, which is near Ferguson, for safety reasons. Hundreds of people gathered outside of the Ferguson Police Department to desire justice. 7 people were arrested at 10 am. The FBI announced their own investigation into the shooting of Michael Brown. The parents of Michael Brown and the attorney of the family demand justice and want an end to violence by 4 pm. Community members and leaders meet and pray at a meeting hosted by the NAACP.

By 8 pm, many people gathered on West Florissant Avenue in Ferguson and the police used tear gas against people. Militarized police existed. By August 12, 2014, more people are arrested. Protesters issued a list of demands involving the investigation of the killing of Michael Brown. Rev. Al Sharpton arrived in St. Louis to speak with the family of Michael Brown. Sharpton and the Brown family spoke on the Old Courthouse steps early Tuesday afternoon. An early autopsy is released by the St. Louis County Medical Examiner’s office. President Barack Obama released a statement announcing that the Justice Department will review police tactics across the nation. Ironically, both the Republicans and the Democrats executed policies that advanced the mass incarceration state, militarized police, and other neoliberal policies. Governor Jay Nixon, the St. Louis Mayor, and other leaders talked about the Brown case. In a separate public meeting, Rev. Al Sharpton and the Brown family desired a peaceful fight for justice involving Michael Brown. Dorian Johnson came forward as an eyewitness to the Brown shooting. All eyewitnesses will give diverse accounts of what has happened and these accounts are debated to this very day. On August 13, 2014, many want a vigil to take place during the day. Many volunteers start to clean the city up. The Justice Department opened a federal civil rights investigation in dealing with the Ferguson shooting. By the night, the police continue to use tear gas to be used against protesters. The Al Jazeera America crew ran because of the tear gas. The police illegally detained 2 reporters (one from the Huffington Post and another from the Washington Post) at a Ferguson McDonald’s. Their names are Wesley Lowery and Ryan Reilly.

Governor Jay Nixon decided to go into Ferguson. St. Louis Alderman Antonio French was also arrested on that day for “unlawful assembly.” At August 12, 2014, City Alderman Antonio French was released from jail without formal charges and posting bond. Governor Nixon visited north St. Louis County and Ferguson. President Obama called for calm and local police to be open and transparent in their investigation. The Governor made the Missouri Highway Patrol to control security in Ferguson. It is overseen by Captain Ron Johnson, who was born and raised near the community of Ferguson. Nationwide, silent vigils were held to honor the memory of Michael Brown. By the evening and nighttime, hundreds of citizens have marched along with state troopers. No violent clashes existed.


Image result for ferguson rallyImage result for michael brown's parents

On August 15, 2014, Darren Wilson was revealed as the person who shot and killed Michael Brown. The family of Michael Brown defended their son. Rev. Jesse Jackson came into Ferguson to led prayer and nonviolent protest promotion. This was on Friday. By nighttime, more than 200 protesters came out. Tear gas was once again used. Rocks were thrown. On August 16, 2014, some stores close. Governor Nixon issued a state of emergency of Ferguson and a curfew is instituted. On August 17, 2014, more arrests came. Many activists opposed the unconstitutional “Five second rule” which allowed Ferguson cops to arrest protesters who stayed in one place for more than five seconds. People successfully ended that illegal policy by lawsuit. Senator Maria Chappelle-Nadal criticized Governor Jay Nixon over his response to the events in Ferguson.  Justice Department spokesman Brian Fallon said Attorney General Eric Holder has ordered a separate federal autopsy for Brown at the request of his family. The St. Louis County Medical Examiner's autopsy concluded that Brown died of gunshot wounds, but other details have not been released. The rebellion continued. A private autopsy requested by Brown's family found that he was shot at least six times, including four times in the right arm and twice in the head, The New York Times reported. On August 18, 2014, Governor Nixon ordered the National Guard into Ferguson after the rebellion from last night.

Michael Brown’s family hired a pathologist to perform its autopsy on Brown’s body. The curfew is lifted. President Barack Obama sent Attorney General Eric Holder to monitor Ferguson. Getty Images photographer Scott Olson was arrested Monday while reporting in Ferguson. He was later released. "I want to be able to do my job as a member of the media and not be arrested for just doing my job," Olson told Pancho Bernasconi, vice president of news at Getty Images. Sybrina Fulton wrote a heartbreaking letter to the family of Michael Brown. It was published in TIME magazine. The letter says that she wished that thing will be fine, but the truth is that she can only pray as their lives are changed forever. At night, the police used tear gas at protesters. On August 19, 2014, rebellions happened. Lesley McSpadden (or Michael Brown’s mother) spoke on the Today Show to mention the goal of finding justice for her son.  "When justice is prevailed, then maybe they'll regain their trust in the locals." Another 23 year old man with a knife was killed by the police. On August 20, 2014, protests continued. A grand jury started to see if Darren Wilson should be charged with the death of Michael Brown. Eric Holder goes into Ferguson for ongoing investigations into civil rights violations related to the shooting. He said that:  "I am the Attorney General of the United States, but I am also a black man," he told community members.

On August 21, 2014, 150 protesters walked around Ferguson’s West Florissant Avenue. The Missouri National Guard started to leave Ferguson by this time. On August 22, 2014, tensions declined as Missouri State Patrol Captain Ron Johnson has said. Protesters go onto the roadway. By August 23, 2014, the day is quiet as many reactionaries and pro-police zealots sent money to Wilson. Fundraisers exist for the Brown family as well. The NAACP held a peaceful protest in Ferguson. Debates continue about militarized police and the events of Ferguson. On August 24, there is a private viewing of Brown’s body. Michael Brown Sr. wanted no protests on the day of his son’s funeral. He desires peace. On Sunday, he promotes the Peace Fest 2014 in Forest Park in St. Louis. This meeting was hosted by Trayvon Martin Foundation and Better Family Life. Brown’s parents along with the families of Martin and Grant were there too. African Americans in Missouri called for the resignation of Ferguson Mayor James Knowles. The funeral takes place on August 25, 2014 at Friendly Temple Missionary Baptist Church.  In the eulogy, the pro-Democratic capitalist and ex-FBI informant Al Sharpton made the disrespectful comment that we should stop making "ghetto pity parties" when opposing injustice has nothing to do with having a pity party. People are outraged at a constant occupation of our communities of militarized cops in many cases. Darren Wilson testified before a grand jury on September 16. Later, there was the four day peaceful protest called Ferguson October. Many people investigated the death of another black teenage named Vonderrit Myers Jr. On October 13, 2014, police arrested clergy and activist academic Cornel West during Ferguson October. This is part of the Moral Monday movement too. On November 11, 2014, Governor Nixon prepared the National Guard in case another rebellion happens after the grand jury released its decision.

On November 13, 2014, Michael Brown Jr. and Lesley McSpadden traveled to Geneva, Switzerland to testify before the United Nations Committee Against Torture. They were part of a human rights group created by the New York and Atlanta based U.S. Human Rights Network. Michael Brown Sr. called for peaceful gathering regardless of the outcome of the grand jury. On November 24, 2014, the grand jury decided to not indict Officer Darren Wilson for firing six shots at Michael Brown which killed him. Protests existed. A police car and stores were set on fire. Gunfire existed. The next day, documents are released about the grand jury decision. Protests continued in the snow and Wilson resigned from the Ferguson Police Department on November 29, 2014. President Barack Obama on December 1, 2014 hosted a meeting about Ferguson. It included many civil rights, youth, community, and faith leader including police leaders in the Oval Office. The federal government wanted to spend $75 million on body cameras for law enforcement. On December 11, 2014, Oakland had protests after the grand jury refuses to indict the officers who killed Eric Garner. On December 13, 2014, a march on Washington, D.C. came about in calling for judicial reform, body cameras on cops, etc. to exist. The Justice for All march opposed police brutality and racial injustice. By December 19, 2014, St. Louis Prosecuting Attorney Robert McCulloch admitted that he believed multiple witnesses lied under oath while testifying before the grand jury that previously heard Brown’s case. One day after December 25, 2014, residents rebuilt a memorial of Michael Brown after a car destroyed the previous remembrance. By December 28, 2014, Ferguson Public Information Officer Timothy Zoll was placed on unpaid leave after reportedly making dismissive comments about a memorial for Brown.

Image result for doj ferguson reportRelated image

On March 3, 2015, the Department of Justice released its accurate, 103 page report documenting the Ferguson Police Department using racial profiling, police brutality, and economic exploitation against the residents of Ferguson. Unreasonable use of force against African American suspects has been documented in this historic report.  In 88% of cases in which Ferguson police documented the use of force, for example, that force was used against African Americans. In essence, the report told the truth that there was a practice of disproportionate stops and arrest of black people without probable cause, there was unreasonable force used, there were racially biased handling of warrants by municipal courts, and there was the police using revenue from poor and black residents for exploitative purposes. On March 4, 2015, the DOJ refused to charge Wilson of civil rights violations. On March 9, 2015, Ferguson municipal judge Ronald Brockmeyer resigned. The DOJ report exposed him as being involved in the scheme to get revenue for Ferguson by issuing unnecessary citations, especially to African Americans. The circuit court controls municipal court cases in Ferguson. By March 10, 2015, John Shaw (or city manager) resigned. He was mentioned in the DOJ report too as presiding over a corrupt court system aggressively fining black residents in order for him to get money. On March 11, Chief Jackson resigned effective March 19th. On March 12, 2 cops were shot in Ferguson. On April 7, 2015, voters in Ferguson elected two black city council members, transforming the political body's racial composition after months of protests over racial profiling and police brutality. The council has one sitting black member already. This is the first time that blacks have controlled half of the council, despite the fact that two-thirds of the city's 21,000 residents are black human beings.

On April 23, 2015, Michael Brown's parents, Lesley McSpadden and Michael Brown Sr., filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the city of Ferguson, former police chief Thomas Jackson and former officer Darren Wilson. The suit challenged the explanation of the shooting presented by Wilson, who resigned from the force four months after the August confrontation. Police Chief Tom Jackson leaves his job and a black interim police chief existed on July 22, 2015. On August 8, 2015, the Ferguson community continued to fight for community development. One year later on August 9, 2015, a protest exists. Gunfire existed and armored vehicles came about in the streets. Also, it is important to cite the leaders involved in the Ferguson movement for change.  Ashley Yates and Tef Poe (who is a hip hop artist) were there in Ferguson from day one. The Universal African Peoples Organization, Show me 15, Youth Activists STL, Darren Seals, Peacekeepers, Disciples for Justice, Don’t Shoot Coalition, Dhoruba Shakur, Jobs with Justice, and other coalitions of activists used action in the areas also.   Brittany Packnett, Antoinette Carroll, Deray McKesson and Johnetta Elzie were involved in Ferguson protests. Religious clergy like Rev. Osagyefo Sekou, and Rev. Renita Lamkin confronted injustice too in Ferguson.  The Black Lives Matter movement was there too from Patrisse Cullors, Tanya Bernard, Jamilah Lemiuex, Damon Turner, Anthony Johnson, and other people. Lawyers, labor rights activists, and scholars joined together in opposing police tyranny. The Organization for Black Struggle was on the ground with resources to help communities. Now, the truth is known and we will continue to fight for the liberation of our black people.

Yes, Black Lives Matter.


Image result for police killings of black peopleImage result for say her name

Continued Police Killings of Black people

There is always a long history among the police and African Americans. Many of our people are police officers and many of our people continue to protest police brutality. We have mixed feelings about the police since many police officers then and now oppress black people while some of our people wear blue too. There is no question that some aspects of the state use the police as a means to contain and oppress black people. The police was used to harm innocent protesters in Selma in 1965. The police was used to arrest nonviolent civil rights protesters. Some police act as agents of the state to monitor progressive or revolutionary social movements for years and decades (even today). Therefore, we are not naïve about what is real. 9/11 was a new era. Immediately after 9/11, the police in many cases increased their surveillance of black, brown, South Asian, Arabic, and Muslim communities. The Patriot Act and other laws were controversial in that it dealt heavily with an increased circumventing of our civil liberties. Stop and frisk grew in urban communities nationwide, especially in New York City during the early years of the 21st century. One of the most tragic cases of police killing was the murder of Sean Bell by the NYPD on November 25, 2006. He was at the eve of his wedding and Sean Bell including his two friends (Trent Benefield and Joseph Guzman) were shot at 50 times by plainclothes officers. Sean Bell died and the officers involved were never convicted of any wrongdoing.

During that time, the prison population skyrocketed in part because of the discriminatory sentencing practices (as documented by sociological studies). There was the aftermath of the Katrina disaster, and continued mistrust of the police by many African Americans. Kathryn Johnston was killed by the police on November 21, 2006. She was an elderly woman. In January 1, 2009, Oscar Grant was killed by a BART police officer. That officer only received a limited, token time in prison. In 2010, a seven year old girl named Aiyana Mo’Nay Stanley-Jones was shot to death during a raid done by the Department’s Special Response Team. Rekia Boyd was killed in 2012 in Chicago by an off duty Chicago police detective. She was only 22 years old and the detective was never convicted of involuntary manslaughter. Jordan Davis was killed by a vigilante in 2012. The person, who did the murder, is in prison now. Jordan Davis’ parents are friends with the family of Trayvon Martin to this very day. Renisha McBride was a 19 year old Sister who was shot and killed by Theodore Wafe (who was convicted on many charges). In 2012, Shelly Frey (who was unarmed) was killed by the police in Texas after she was suspected of shoplifting. Yet, Frey was not a direct threat to any officer. Kyam Livingston died in police custody on July 24, 2013. By 2014, many African Americans were shot or killed by police officers. They were Tamir Rice, Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Dontre Hamilton, and other people. Eric Garner sparked many protests in New York City.

2015 saw the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore. Baltimore is where many of my relatives live at and I have visited Baltimore period. Baltimore has the paradox of massive political power among black people (the majority of people who live in Baltimore are African Americans), but serious problems of economic inequality, poverty, and police brutality (as documented by the DOJ) exist. So, this is caused by classism (which in turned is created by capitalism) not just racism. In other words, many black people are in the upper middle class and some (not all) in that class lacks a true concern of the interests of poor and working class black people in Baltimore. Anger was in Baltimore in 2015 and the rebellion occurred in the city. The rebellion happened when the police blocked many students from coming into their homes. Later, the rebellion transpired for days with buildings burning and hurt expressed in many manifestations. To this very day, Baltimore is trying to heal and improve. Sandra Bland in 2015 died mysteriously in a Texas jail cell. Authorities classified her death as suicide while her family disagrees. Also, the 2015 pool party incident in Texas when cops blatantly used overt excessive force against young girls and young boys (even pointing guns at non-threatening children). In 2016, Alton Sterling in Louisiana and Philando Castile in Minnesota were shot to death again by the police. Korryn Gaines was killed by the police on August 1, 2016. Listing all of these names are not coincidences.

This represents a total epidemic of police killings of people of black African descent in America. In 2017, the names of Jordan Edwards, Edson Da Costa, Charleena Chavon Lyles, Rashan Charles, and Jaocques Clemmons represent more events where lives are lost tragically. The Say Her Name movement is about making society awareness of the epidemic of the abuse and murder of black women and girls. It also wants people to know that intersectionality is a reality. In order words, race, class, gender, etc. intersect in society. Solutions to this problem are diverse. The solution making process won’t be easy, but it must be promoted. There must be serious monitoring and training of officers. There should be the federal eradication of mandatory minimum sentencing. There should be strong enforcement against police brutality and allow more community control of law enforcement (as we should control them not them controlling us). There should be the outright demilitarization of the police. There should be a federal ban on racial profiling and broken windows in policing. There should be the end to for profit prisons. There should also be investments in community development and giving people more economic plus social opportunities to live out their own lives. I have no problem with cameras, but make sure that there is severe punishment for any cop who abuses cameras. There should be an attack on any form of bigotry and injustice done by us. We are in the right when we advocate for justice since Black Lives Matter.


Image result for 3 founders of blmImage result for 3 founders of blm


Black Lives Matter

The journey of African Americans has lasted for centuries and beyond. Today, there is a new movement that seeks social change that deals with the eradication of racial profiling, police brutality, racial inequality, and the prison industrial complex (in which the criminal justice system is completely unfair). This movement is the Black Lives Matter movement. It has been critiqued, slandered, disrespected, praised, and loved. It is a movement that has been supported by many and hated by many. It’s a movement that represents a new era of the black freedom struggle. After almost 5 years, the Black Lives Matter movement still flourishes. The post-9/11 world has been filled with police repression and discriminatory policies (including the profiling of Arabic Americans and Muslims unjustly). Hurricane Katrina taught everyone that class oppression and racial injustice still existed. Jena Six was about the fight for equal justice under the law. The Black Lives Matter movement was born in 2013. This came after the murder of Trayvon Martin by the vigilante George Zimmerman. Zimmerman stalked and killed Trayvon in Sanford, Florida on February of 2012. After Zimmerman’s acquittal, thousands of antiracist activists and ordinary citizens protested the decision. The criminal justice system once again has let the black community down in the midst of centuries of oppression.  The Birth of the Black Lives Matter movement came about on the day of July 13, 2013. Its founders were three black women whose names are Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi. All 3 women knew each other from meeting in the BOLD organization or Black Organizing for leadership and Dignity. They wanted to response in opposition to the verdict of the Trayvon Martin trial.

Garza wrote a Facebook post titled "A Love Note to Black People" in which she said: "Our Lives Matter, Black Lives Matter". Cullors replied: "#BlackLivesMatter.”" Tometi then added her support, and Black Lives Matter was born as an online campaign. From an online campaign, BLM evolved into a social and political movement. Its organization is decentralized. There are at least 30 Black Lives Matter chapters in America, England, Canada, Australia, and Ghana. BLM Chapters are given great latitude in forming their own programs and policies. Yet, their goals are very much the same. They have shared principles and outlooks. Local chapters have great power. Their Black Lives Matter website have 13 guiding principles including Diversity, Globalism (as in black people living globally share unity), Empathy, Restorative Justice, and Intergenerational (which is about rejecting ageism and promoting collaborations among black people regardless of age). The Black Lives Matter movement is a hybrid movement. It combines much of the tactics of the old school civil rights movement (which includes civil disobedience, protests, sit-ins, etc.) with the progressive side of the Black Power Movement (with its emphasis on Blackness and black solidarity). It is a movement that has been influenced by hip hop, Occupy Wall Street, black feminism, Pan-Africanism, the Anti-Apartheid movement, the LGBTQIA+ social movement, and other movements. Black Lives Matter has differences from the NAACP (from decades ago) in which they reject respectability politics, some have skepticism towards the Democratic Party, and some have an aversion to bourgeois traditions.

Its organization is group centered. The tragic events of Ferguson caused the BLM movement to increase its profile in the public’s eye. By August of 2014, more than 500 BLM members have protested in the form of a Freedom Ride to Ferguson, Missouri after Michael Brown was shot and killed. They have used demonstrations throughout Ferguson. The greatest contributions of the Black Lives Matter movement to the overall black freedom struggle has been their emphasis on exposing extrajudicial killings of black people by the police (and others), promoting intersectionality, and respecting the dignity of the diversity of black people (in order words Black immigrants, black disabled people, black women, and Black LGBTQIA+ human beings shouldn’t be oppressed or murdered period. We have an epidemic of transgender black people being murdered and murder is wrong period). Marcia Chatelain, associate professor of history at Georgetown University, has praised BLM for allowing "young, queer women [to] play a central role" in the movement.” During the Ferguson protests, the Ferguson rebellion existed after years and decades of housing discrimination, economic exploitation, police brutality, and other injustices against the people of Ferguson.

Image result for 3 founders of blmImage result for 3 founders of blm

Rebellions never occur out of a vacuum. The National Guard and the police tried their best to suppress the outrage at a corrupt system in Ferguson, Baltimore, etc., but the protesters didn’t back down. Even after men, women, and children experienced tear gas and innocent journalists were falsely arrested by the Missouri police, heroic people continued in the fight for justice. Also, these events made more people recognize the massive problem of racism and economic oppression in America. Palestinians overseas even gave black activists advice on how to do with tear gas via social media. Black Lives Matter has used social media, protests, civil disobedience, and other tactics in getting their points across. The myth of post racialism has been exposed by truth tellers. Also, there are class divides in the African American community. There are poor and working class black people in America and many upper class and wealthy African Americans (some of which include the black professional political establishment) who desire the system and non-revolutionary change. Many of the black middle class and the upper class have more of a stake in American capitalism than poor black people. 

In 2014, Black Lives Matter members have demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions like Dontre Hamilton, Eric Garner, John Crawford III, Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Laquan McDonald, Akai Gurley, Tamir Rice, Antonio Martin, and Jerame Reid, among others. In 2014, Eric Garner was choked to death in New York City. This caused a bigger opposition to police terrorism. The Black Lives Matter movement grew into another level after the unfortunate murder of Eric Garner. Ezell Ford was killed in Los Angeles, and Akai Gurley was killed in NYC on November of 2014. He was a 28 year old man. Many activists protested in NYC and Los Angeles by 2015. Tamir Rice was also killed by a police officer in Cleveland, Ohio on November 2014 too. By December of 2014, 2,000 to 3,000 people protested the killings of unarmed black people by the police. They were in Bloomington, Minnesota and they used signs and stood there in the location. In Milwaukee, BLM protested the police shooting of Dontre Hamilton who died in April. John Crawford and Renisha McBride were also killed. Darren Wilson would not be indicted by a grand jury by December of 2014. Many people were outraged.

In 2015-2016, many black protesters opposed the racism in the University of Missouri. Also, Black Lives Matter expanded to coverage many more cases of police killings of black people. This was the year of the Charleston Nine tragedy as well. In March, BLM protested at Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel's office, demanding reforms within the Chicago Police Department. Charley Leundeu Keunang, a 43-year-old Cameroonian national, was fatally shot by Los Angeles Police Department officers. The LAPD arrested fourteen following BLM demonstrations.  In April of 2015, Freddie Gray died as a product of lax medical assistance while being in a Baltimore police van for an extended period of time. BLM members and other groups protested and there was the Baltimore rebellion. Walter Scott was murdered by the police in North Charleston, South Carolina.

Many people wanted black women’s lives to be respected. So, in May of 2015, a protest by BLM in San Francisco was part of a nationwide protest, Say Her Name, decrying the police killing of black women and girls, which included the deaths of Meagan Hockaday, Aiyana Jones, Rekia Boyd, and others.

Image result for 3 founders of blmImage result for 3 founders of blm

"...It’s important that South Carolina took their Confederate flag down but I believe that white supremacy will sacrifice this flag as long as they get to keep everything else so I’m not really moved. It’s interesting to see which congressmen are against removing the flag though, it’s a great way for blatant racists to show themselves. These are people who are in control of making your laws, legislation and policies and they believe the Confederate flag should fly because it’s a part of their “heritage”—a heritage which includes black people being in bondage..."

-A true statement from Activist Johnetta Elzie (in her interview with Hillary Crosley Coker)

In Cleveland, Ohio, after an officer was acquitted at trial in the shooting of Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams, BLM protested. In Madison, Wisconsin, BLM protested after the officer was not charged in the shooting of Tony Robinson. After the Charleston Nine tragedy, the Confederate flag was gone from the South Carolina state capitol grounds. 800 people protested in McKinney, Texas after an officer kneed down a girl at a pool party in McKinney, Texas to the ground with his knees. Sandra Bland died in police custody with her body hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas.  In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Janelle Monáe, Jidenna, and other BLM activists marched through North Philadelphia to bring awareness to police brutality and Black Lives Matter. Around August 9, 2015, the first anniversary of Michael Brown's death, BLM rallied, held vigil and marched in St. Louis and across the country. By 2016, the Black Lives Matter was an international movement. It has been praised and hated. It has been a powerful force in the 2010’s. This was the time of the 2016. While most Republican candidates denounced the BLM, many BLM members wanted to talk to the Democrats.

There is the issue of co-option and BLM should maintain its political independence. O’Malley was a Democratic candidate and he apologized for saying all lives matter. Also, Bernie Sanders were talked too and Hillary Clinton was very hostile to many BLM members in saying that they must set up demands and organize laws instead of changing hearts. The problem with that argument is that BLM on their website have many plans and demands. In 2016, Alton Sterling and Philando Castile was murdered. It also was the time when Micah Xavier Johnson killed 5 officers in Dallas, and wounded 7 others plus harmed 2 civilians. The BLM leadership condemned the actions of Micah Johnson. As for the 2016 Presidential election, DeRay McKesson (who falsely compared charter schools to the BPP’s Breakfast Program for Children. DeRay is known for his allegiance to the Democratic Party) voted for Hillary Clinton. The Mothers of the Movement (which includes the mothers of Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Eric Garner, and other mothers whose children were killed by law enforcement or gun violence) spoke at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 26, 2016. 

In 2017, Black Lives Matter continues to grow. In 2017, in Black History Month, a month-long "Black Lives Matter" art exhibition was organized by three Richmond, Virginia artists at the First Unitarian Universalist Church in the Byrd Park area of the city. The show featured more than 30 diverse multicultural artists on a theme exploring racial equality and justice. Black Lives Matter chapters are in Canada, Europe, Africa, and Australia (in trying to defend the human rights of Aboriginal people). Conservative critics of Black Lives Matter view BLM members as racists and they over exaggerate crime statistics. The truth is that BLM has denounced racism and sociological studies document the racial disparities in the criminal justice system and the racial injustices going on. Other critiques say that Black Lives Matter ignores intraracial violence in the black community, but other social activists groups are fighting against intraracial violence constantly. Many people want to ignore black social activism (while discussing intraracial violence as a deflection) in promoting the reactionary lie that black people don’t care about the lives of other black people. Reactionaries (who refuse to believe in the reality of the agenda of white supremacy) have used the All Lives Matter movement as a means to ignore the concerns of black Americans and to advance the false view that American society is a total meritocracy. Blue Lives Matter was created as a response of BLM activists fighting against police brutality. There are many critics of the Black Lives Matter movement. Some are extremists like Sheriff David A. Clarke Jr. and Rudy Giuliani who slander the BLM as an anti-police, racist group. Others like Cecil Murray, Najee Ali, and Earl Ofari Hutchinson criticize tactics of the BLM not the overall goal (which is of course black liberation).

There are also more conservative or moderate civil rights leaders like Andrew Young (who said that he feels uncomfortable condemning the Klan types when you should tell the truth in season and out of season. I’m disappointed in Andrew Young for his 2017 August comments on Meet the Press) who has criticized not only BLM, but he wants Confederate statues to remain on public lands. Dr. King always called Andrew Young a conservative and he told Young that he (or Dr. King) wasn’t a capitalist and he didn’t agree with him on many issues. Now, Black Lives Matter is a youthful movement and it should be careful of co-option, capitalist, slick plans by some and other things. There has been the accusation by some that the Ford Foundation pledged $100 million to Black Lives Matter. The truth is that the Ford Foundation pledged $100 million to the Black-Led Movement Fund, which is not the same thing as Black Lives Matter. Many groups in the Black-Led Movement Fund are endorsed by some in the BLM. Likewise, we know that many foundations and NGOs are allied with the political establishment. Another accusation is that George Soros funds the entire BLM, which is a lie. George Soros is a neoliberal capitalist and he didn’t found the BLM.

3 Black Women created the BLM.  To this very day, the Democratic Party desires to co-opt and control the Black Lives Matter movement. The Democratic Party influences tons of elected officials, the Urban League, the NAACP, labor groups, many local churches, etc. We know that the GOP is filled with extremists and bigots, but a social movement must embrace political independence. Part of that independence is to condemn not only the mass incarceration state, but imperialism, capitalism, and economic inequality. The state is an instrument of the oligarchy that uses the forces of reaction to fight back against movements for social change. In order words, independent black politics is a legitimate aim to follow. We do know that the Intercept has reported that the DHS and the FBI (including state police intelligence groups) has surveilled the Black Lives activists too. There is no secret about the FBI illegally monitoring civil rights and other progressive groups. Therefore, we should use courage and discernment to follow the interests of the people not the oligarchy. Black Liberation is not about reforms here and there. Black liberation is a global transformation of society where imperialism is abolished and economic justice is made real. Also, some Black Lives Matter people have partnered with One United Bank to promote the Black Lives Matter debit card, which is about promoting black capitalism.

Historically, black capitalism doesn’t work since it only benefits a small percentage of the rich or upper middle class African Americans. This debit card promotion readily promotes the myth that black people are poor because of black peoples’ choices instead of the capitalist system oppressing black people. It is no secret that capitalist economies require a large amount of unemployed workers to depress the wages of those currently employed. True economic development requires input from the poor and working class. Black collective economic efforts of cooperatives, labor unions, and strikes plus fights for living wages can work to develop black political, economic, and social wealth. Many members of the Black Lives Matter movement have supported the Boycott, Divest, and Sanctions movement. The BDS movement is about opposing what its supporters believe is the occupation of Palestinian lands by Israeli forces. Many people accuse Israel of using apartheid policies in the region. No nation is perfect. No nation is God. No nation is above critique, so people have every right to expose the mistakes done by Israel.  I don't view the BDS movement as anti-Semitic since it isn't condemning every Jewish person on Earth. It condemns certain policies done by one nation.

The Black Lives Matter movement has great support among the African American community too. According to a September 2015 poll on race relations, nearly two-thirds of African Americans mostly agree with Black Lives Matter, while 42% of white Americans are unsure or do not have an opinion about Black Lives Matter. Of white people surveyed, 41% thought that Black Lives Matter advocated violence, and 59% of whites thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. By comparison, 82% of black people polled thought that Black Lives Matter was a nonviolent movement, and 26% of blacks thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. On the question of whether "Black Lives Matter" was mostly a movement or mostly a slogan, 46% of whites and 67% of blacks thought that it is mostly a movement. A similar poll in June 2016 found that 65% of black American adults supported Black Lives Matter and 40% of white American adults support it. Fifty-nine percent of black Americans thought that Black Lives Matter would "be effective, in the long run, in helping blacks achieve equality" and 34% of white Americans thought so.

Related image

A 2017 Harvard-Harris survey found that 35% of whites and 83% of blacks have a favorable view of the movement. The statistics are clear. We are on the side of Black Lives Matter and human justice. The Black Lives Matter movement will deal with many questions. Also, the Black Lives Matter is unique in that it constantly changes and it has great resiliency. It is part of African American history and its long tradition of resistance against injustice. Also, the Black Lives Matter movement should be reminded that a revolutionary political and economic program is necessary in ending capitalist oppression. That means that it must reject co-option from foundations, capitalist politicians, and other forces of compromise. In order words, we have to develop more of our own institutions with our own power (with the purpose of uplift our black people) as the means to grow our power. The end goal is the total self-determination and liberation of all people of black African descent here and abroad and being international in scope (while maintaining anti-imperialist views). No movement is immune from critique, but we recognize the courageous people in the Black Lives Matter movement who are doing what is right and honoring truth. The Black Lives Matter is forever etched in the long journey of the African American historical experience.

Black Lives Matter.

Image result for the charleston nineImage result for the charleston nine


The Charleston Nine


One of the saddest moments of Black American history was the domestic terrorist attack against innocent black people in Charleston, South Carolina’s Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church. It occurred on the date of June 17, 2015. People in the church had a prayer service. These glorious black human beings just wanted to worship the Lord in their church. One evil person murdered 9 people. The senior pastor and state Senator murdered was Clementa C. Pinckney. He was a social activist. The white supremacist murderer was Dylann Roof. The evil murders once again showed the world that confronting racism and hate never requires ascetism. It requires a true activism and a fight for justice. It happened during the time where the Confederate flag was on public grounds. After the murders, Nikki Haley (to her credit) allowed authorities to get rid of the Confederate flag from state’s grounds. Also, it is important to recognize the historical significance of the South Carolina Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church. It was a church created during the 19th century. Members of the church fought against slavery and were for abolitionism. It was one of the oldest black churches in America. Morris Brown was an early member of the church. Denmark Vesey was one of the church’s founders and he organized an attempted slavery rebellion in order to free our people form bondage. He was arrested (after a traitorous slave revealed plans to a slave owner). Vesey was murdered by hanging on July 2, 1822. The church was burnt down and rebuilt.

It existed throughout Reconstruction and Jim Crow. Booker T. Washington also spoke at the Emanuel AME Church too. During the Jim Crow era, many black people worked in the church to advance civil rights. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Wyatt T. Walker of the SCLC (or the Southern Christian Leadership Conference) spoke at the church to encourage black people to register and vote. In Charleston, there was an epicenter of activism of civil rights activism. One example is that Septima Clark created Citizenship School in South Carolina to advance civil rights, voting rights, education, and human rights in general. Septima Clark was one of the greatest civil rights leaders in history. The Friendship Nine were black people who opposed segregation during the early 1960’s. Also, black women especially marched in Charleston in 1969 to promote economic rights of the striking hospital workers. The workers wanted fair wages and an end to racism plus sexism. Mary Ann Maultree and Coretta Scott King were activists involved in this movement for civil rights and labor rights.

The men and the women, who lost their lives by a murderer, represented outstanding character and excellence in their daily lives. Reverend Sharonada Singleton was a speech therapist at Goose Creek High School in Berkeley County, South Carolina. She helped people constantly and she was the head coach of the girls’ track team. She was a track athlete herself and she coached hurdles and sprints. She was a great person who shown love to her faculty and students. Cynthia Hurd was a regional manager of the St. Andrew’s library, which is part of the Charleston County library system. She always expressed love for God and she served her community. Tywanza Sanders recently graduated from Allen University’s business administration program. He was a barber and he always was committed to education. DePayne Middleton-Doctor was a director of the federal community development block grants. She was involved in installing septic tanks. Reverend Dr. Daniel L. Simmons was a retired pastor. Ethel Lance worked as a 70 year old sexton for over 30 years in the church. She has always worked hard.

Myra Thompson was the vicar of the Holy Trinity REC Church in Charleston. Susie Jackson was 87 years old.  All of these human beings have expressed joy, love, and service to the people. They were some of the most moral people of our generation. They are physically not here, but their spirits remain forever in Paradise. Immediately, rallies and fundraisers by the people of Charleston prove once again shown that the forces of love are always superior than the forces of hate. People held hands in prayer and people were inspired to advance solutions. Another hero who took down the Confederate flag on her own was Bree Newsome. She is a well-known progressive hero who is very intelligent. She graduated from Oakland Mills High School in Columbia, Maryland in 2003. She took down the flag to oppose racism and oppression against black people whether it’s found in America or the Dominican Republic (by her own words). She is a strong black woman and she exposed the colonialist and evil white supremacist Cecil Rhodes too. She was arrested, but her efforts were part of a long struggle that ended in that flag finally coming down from public grounds in South Carolina. The Confederate flag coming down in South Carolina was a blessed day. The events of Charleston make known how far we have to go and how compassionate people can be to stand up against racism and bigotry. As black Americans, we still rise.

Image result for Destiny WatfordImage result for black activism



Continued Black Activism


Black Activism is part of our history and culture. We have always stood up for freedom and justice. Our activism is not monolithic either. It is very diverse. There are black pro-green groups who advocate environmental justice and true solutions against pollution. One example of this is that Destiny Watford of Baltimore has made known of the pollution in Curtis Bay, which is a Baltimore neighborhood. That location has a coal disposal facility, a landfill, and other high pollution industrial facilities in close vicinity to a residential neighborhood. She is fighting back against pollution too. Stand UP BMore is a movement of grassroots people trying to promote community organizing and political power that is independent in Baltimore. One man named Joshua Harris in Baltimore has advocated legitimate solutions like participatory budgeting at the community level, land trusts to give community control over development and housing prices, green energy initiatives, and other proposals. There are groups like Assata’s Daughters, Mothers of the Movement, Say Her Name, Black Lives Matter, Hands up Coalition, and other organizations that desire an end to police brutality, the development of black liberation, and the eradication of institutionalized racism. Many of the grassroots activists of Ferguson have inspired a younger generation of people to not only confront police brutality, but to stand up against a racist U.S.A.. national anthem (Colin Kapernick did the right thing to kneel and doing great work in helping society) to defend the human rights of all black people. Johnetta Elize is one young civil rights activist who has involved in Ferguson protests and community activism. Therefore, younger human beings and older human beings are working together in seeking the same prize of justice today.

 Image result for trump inauguration 2017


Trump is Elected



Black Americans survived Nixon, Reagan, Bush, and other reactionary Presidents. We will survive Trump. Also, it is important to describe the situation that we are in. Donald Trump’s 2016 campaign from the beginning appealed to racism, patriarchy, hypercaptialism, xenophobia, and economic nationalism. Many of his supporters (regardless of what class reductionists and Republicans say) are stone cold racists, sexists, and xenophobes period. Now, it is true that complex reasons existed on why Trump was elected. It is also true that class and economic issues have a large part to play. Neoliberal economic policies damaged large parts of the Rust belt and other Midwestern states. The polices of deindustrialization, multinational corporations causing outsourcing, and the growth of economic inequality damaged the jobs of many black Americans and Americans in general. This economic reality caused many people to vote for Trump. Also, the Democrats have some responsibility on why a bigot was selected as President by the Electoral College too.

Since the year of 1968, the Democratic establishment turned rightward. This is shown by the deregulation policies of Carter, the rise of the DLC in the 1980’s, Bill Clinton’s free market approach on many issues when he was President, and many Democrat’s defense of the Iraq War even (which was one of the worst foreign policy disasters in the 21st century). Therefore, many Democrats refused to honor or respect progressive movements for social change. That is why WikiLeaks exposed how some Democratic leaders refused to respect progressive people. We know how the neoliberal Democratic leaders treated Jesse Jackson with disrespect (though Jesse Jackson wasn’t a socialist, it was still taboo for a strong progressive to try to run for President back then). Hillary Clinton was a victim of massive sexism and that is true. Also, Hillary Clinton’s advocacy of militarism, refusal to advocate universal health care, and public perceptions about the email scandal caused many people to stay home, not for vote for her, or even make the bad mistake to vote for Trump.

Voter participation among the Obama coalition declined in the 2016 election as compared to the 2012 election. That was a key reason why the 2016 election came about. Trump, from the start, promoted a campaign of hate and bigotry. He slandered Mexican undocumented immigrants by calling a large portion of them rapists and drug smugglers. He patronized black people by saying what do you have to lose. He wants the death penalty to the Central Park Five (when they are innocent of any crime). Trump, on tape, bragged about promoting sexual assault against women. He promoted violence against protesters. He supports torture and advocates a border wall around Mexico which is topographically impossible and highly expensive. He promotes tax cuts for the wealthy. He claims to promote an infrastructure plan, but he believes in massive cuts to needed social programs. Donald Trump believes in a travel ban and wants NFL Owners to fire players who kneel during the national anthem (which is wrong). The election of 2016 proved that the rightwing backlash against progressive reforms has not ended. The evil rightwing backlash continues. The vast majority of people who voted for Trump were white people (including white women). The vast majority of black people, Latinos, and Asian people voted against Trump. Black women voted against Trump more so than any other demographic, which shows the brilliance of black women. We live in a new time. Hate crimes have increased against black people, against Muslims, against immigrants, etc. since the election of 2016. Also, during the campaign, courageous protesters opposed the Trump agenda in the streets, in buildings, and in other places of America. Their heroism should be acknowledged. 

Image result for quote from bree newsome


Trump’s cabinet is dominated by U.S. military generals, former generals, reactionary extremists, and others. Many people in his cabinet were so extreme that some were forced out (like Gorka and Bannon) because their views are repugnant in any society. Donald Trump has been overt in what he wanted. That is why people have opposed his travel ban plans, his plan to end Obamacare (which was defeated by the Senate), and his pardoning of a convicted criminal Joe Arpaio (who violated the human and civil rights of Latino Americans). His disgraceful comments about the Charlottesville massacre caused many of his supporters to not support him anymore. Trump talking about the police should use brutality against suspects has been condemned by progressive activists and even police groups too. Trump is quick to attack black people and people of color like Maxine Waters, Frederica Smith Wilson, LaVar Ball, Marshawn Lynch, Colin Kaepernick and others, but he is all too willing to excuse white bigots like Roy Moore (also women have said that he did sexual misconduct against them. Moore is a coward and a total disgrace) or to pardon xenophobes like Joe Arpaio. We know what he stands for. Anyone supporting Donald Trump unconditionally right now is a racist or a supporter of racism. There is no middle ground on this point. We believe in freedom and Trump is the antithesis of freedom plus justice. Still, as black people, we still rise.

The next, final words on this African American history series will come about in early 2018.

By Timothy